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品种多样化成未来洁具行业新态势

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2017年上半年LED行业分析 谁是高市值企业 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

东莞厚街镇家具企业借力跨境电商进入南非市场

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Wearing a black leotard and curled hairpiece, beauty queen Bobbi Boyden shakes her hips and blows kisses to the audience as part of her routine.
萝丝王
米拉?库妮丝排名第二,其后是凯特?阿普顿、流行歌星蕾哈娜和艾玛?斯通。
BrandZ表示,这些品牌靠近国内市场,这帮助它们从全球品牌手中夺取市场份额,它们还在新地区赢得市场份额。
Yes, even if real GDP growth does not. Speculation over the true GDP growth rate in China, as opposed to the official one, has spawned a cottage industry of specialist economists. The official figures are deceptively stable and serene thanks to suspected “smoothing” by the Chinese authorities, as they bend the figures to fit growth targets. So even if growth does stumble in 2018, the official growth rate is almost certain to come in above the preordained 6.5 per cent.
根据近日发布的《第13次国际年度住房负担能力调查:2017》显示,这三座城市高居世界最不可购性房屋市场的前三甲。
一部富有感染力的、描写一名年轻黑人男同性恋成长故事的影片《月光男孩》(Moonlight),获得2017年奥斯卡(Oscar)最佳影片奖。不过,该片险些与此奖项擦肩而过,原因是在混乱的颁奖现场,此奖项曾被误颁给了《爱乐之城》(La La Land)。

Courtney Weaver
这张专辑等于是一次直截了当的暗示,提醒着我们,不论什么时候,只要霉女王想要,她就能拿回自己在流行音乐界的领先地位。
In 2018, more business leaders will channel a potent combination of digitalisation, generational change and growing diversity, to streamline their hierarchies, distribute responsibility, and transform their organisations.
WTF.1: Next Level of Working Moms
Stand: Costco CEO Craig Jelinek refused to open on Thanksgiving Day

Footnotes

  • 内地最新鬼城指数地图发布 盘点中国著名9大鬼城
  • 难怪各银行开始变得有创造力。

wheat
自迈克尔?哈内克之后,再没有人像希腊导演欧格斯?兰斯莫斯那样喜欢在电影作品中解剖社会习俗了。两年前,他的电影《龙虾》用其看待社会的辛辣视角完全征服了戛纳电影节。在《龙虾》描述的社会中,如果成年人无法在45天内寻找到一个爱侣,就会变成动物——这也是我们的世界,只是将集体思维和从众性推向了最大的极限。如今他又带着新作《圣鹿之死》回归,这是关于一个外科医生(科林?法瑞尔饰)和他的妻子(妮可?基德曼饰)的家庭惊悚电影。这位妻子也是一个医生,她像朋友一样对待没有父亲的少年马丁。马丁似乎决心暴露这个家庭的秘密,并揭开这对夫妻过去的一段可怕的创伤。这部电影想表达的难道是家庭(也有可能是社会)的平静有时候依赖于共享商定的谎言?不管是不是,准备好接受惊吓吧。该片将于11月9日在丹麦上映,11月16日在俄罗斯上映,11月30在中国香港上映。(A24制片公司)
But nearly two-thirds (65 percent) of white evangelical Protestants say they think the storms are evidence of the "end times" as predicted by the Bible.
The central government has allocated a special fund of 100 billion yuan to provide assistance to workers laid off from overcapacity cuts, and also has asked local governments to set up matching funds.
Elsewhere, Australia recently introduced reforms that have increased transparency around fund pricing, which has driven rapid growth in ETFs.
而在非手术整形中,注射肉毒杆菌和激光脱毛依然是最受欢迎的。

2015年房地产以稳为主 通州或领衔北京市场

References

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