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有买房记录就能提公积金?厦门公积金中心凌晨紧急回应

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 国土部:增加租赁住房供应 缓解供需矛盾 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

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The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

PwC has counted votes and provides winner envelopes for the Oscars and has done so for more than 80 years. This is the first time in Oscar history that the wrong envelope had been opened while an award was being announced.
It can free up bartenders so they can make more drinks when it's busy.
It grows naturally into the mold's shape.
获奖者:侯任总统唐纳德?特朗普和希拉里·克林顿(共同获奖)
我们从中精选了110部新剧和回归剧,又进一步缩减到下面的20部剧(内中没有包括HBO台的《真探》[True Detective],因为它被移到今年晚些时候,亦不包括《权力的游戏》[Game of Thrones]、《副总统》[Veep]和《硅谷》[Silicon Valley],其中《硅谷》将在四月播出第一集,具体日期未宣布)。从《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)的衍生剧到《小镇疑云》(Broadchurch)的回归,再到《火线警探》的最终季,冬天真是电视剧迷的好时光。
Yes. There are plenty of positives: earnings, economic growth, and US tax cuts. But they are already known. Stocks look ridiculously expensive by historical standards, but that tells us nothing about short-term moves. Ultimately, it comes down to liquidity, which has driven markets since they emerged from the crisis in 2009. If all goes according to plan, central banks will be decreasing their balance sheets, and removing liquidity, by the end of 2018. If they go through with this, the odds are that the S&P will stall. But even a tiny tremor could make the bankers blink. Expect the momentum to continue.
人民日报官网表示,2013年符合报考条件的人数到达历史最高——152万,2014年为141万人,这是四年来报考人数首次出现下降。

2014 sees the World Cup returning to South America for the first time since 1978, when a Mario Kempes inspired Argentina saw off the Netherlands, keeping up the record that only South American teams have ever won the tournament when it's been held there. So will 2014 be any different ? Will any of the big European nations, including the holders Spain, be able to do what no other team has managed in the past ? Or does any other continent have the strength to see off the challenge from a strong South American group ?
几年前,有人发明了一辆会飞的自行车,叫做"Paravelo"。称一辆自行车会飞,并不是开玩笑,而是这辆自行车真的会飞(车头有一个巨大的降落伞)。它在陆地和空中的时速分别为25千米(15英里)和40千米(25英里),可飞至1200米(4000英尺)高空。最棒的地方是什么呢?那就是你不需要有飞行驾照。Paravelo号称世界上第一辆会飞的自行车,但我们必须指出它并不是第一辆会飞的自行车。
莱昂纳多凭借他在《荒野猎人》中的演出斩获最佳男演员奖项,打败了埃迪雷德梅尼等劲敌。埃迪凭借在《丹麦女孩》中的演出获得金球奖提名。坊间盛传小李子有望在今年夺得他人生中第一座奥斯卡奖杯。
在过去的12个月里,这位22岁的T台女王兼真人秀明星赚得2200万美元,首次登顶福布斯模特收入榜。
Among the gargantuan hedge funds that make up a majority of the industry’s assets under management, dispersion of returns shot up to notable levels. And for every big winner, like William Ackman’s Pershing Square, there was a big loser to counterbalance it, like John Paulson’s Advantage Fund. Investors choose hedge funds for their “non-correlated returns,” meaning a tendency to move opposite from the general market’s direction. They certainly got such returns this year, unfortunately.

Footnotes

  • 江西省首个装配式建材生产基地今年投产
  • 2. 邻客音(LinkedIn)。品牌喜爱度:47%/排名:309

英国国家卫生署去年公布的入院患者的数据显示,各种各样的营养性疾病和传染性疾病在过去十年来以惊人的速度增长着。
美国总统vs韩美自由贸易协定
tracks
调查显示,75%的顾客都知道可穿戴技术(无论是作为前卫的时尚潮流,还是新时代的技术工具),但是只有9%的顾客有兴趣使用它们。根据调查,仅有2%的人表示自己拥有可穿戴设备,其中大部分都是健身追踪器或智能手表。
我们要营造有利于创业就业的环境,不是靠政府去提供铁饭碗,而是让人民群众用劳动和智慧去创造或者说打造金饭碗。
"The CPI just went up two percent year on year in 2016, less than the three-percent predictive index. It was a moderate inflation, and reflected the price level was effectively controlled and basically stable," said Jin.

发改委:坚持房地产政策的稳定性和连续性

References

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