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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

国家大学排行榜单数量从去年的38份上升到42份。新加入的榜单包括阿根廷、墨西哥、巴基斯坦和罗马尼亚大学排行榜。

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在这两个新指标方面,英国商学院的表现都优于法国商学院。在职业发展方面表现最好的英国商学院——华威商学院(Warwick Business School)在这一指标的总体排名中位居第二,高于法国在这方面表现最好的巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris) 30个名次。在毕业后首份工作薪资与当下薪资比较方面,英国商学院校友的薪资增幅更大,为62%,法国商学院校友的薪资增幅为45%。然而,英国商学院校友的平均薪资仍低于与法国商学院校友,分别为5.5万美元和6.4万美元。
This is a story about six friends with precarious love lives who spend their days sitting in a cafe sipping coffee from oversized mugs. Who’d have thought this premise would go on to become one of the most influential sitcoms of all time?
周二,她在给客户的一封信里提出了下面几个观点,令我耳目一新:

这份工作排名的依据分别是:收入、职业前景、工作环境、工作压力和体能需求等,大部分数据来自美国劳工部统计局。
与IBM合作,将iPad和iPhone销售给大企业客户,只是苹果在库克领导下打破自身藩篱的一个例子,而这是乔布斯一直不愿做的。
China will "fasten the seat belt" and prevent any "acute outburst" of financial risks on the track for maintaining medium-high growth speed.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

对标阿里巴巴 上市前夕车建新口中的红星美凯龙

The Dutch case involved sophisticated financial professionals, people accustomed to analyzing financial and economic trends. Yet, they too focused on their personal experience.
Maryam Sharif
订婚买钻石真是太没新意了

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

戛纳电影节素以质问与嘲笑著名。在本届电影节上,《青木原树海》(Sea of Trees)成为第一部遭遇观众挑剔的电影。该片由格斯?范?桑特Gus Van Sant指导。在媒体放映场,《青木原树海》遭遇嘲弄的风暴,陷入了嘘声之海。由于这些发生在首映红毯前,恶评迅速传播,使得盛典蒙上阴影。娜奥米?沃茨(Naomi Watts )和 马修?麦康纳(Matthew McConaughey)走上红毯时,《每日电讯报》(Daily Telegraph)形容此场景为“极其糟糕却又引人瞩目的羞辱之途”。但是在随后的新闻发布会上,马修?麦康纳,这位来自德克萨斯的演员表情坦然,“每个人都有权倒喝彩,正如他们有权喝彩一样,”他说道。我相信我们都知道他的意思。
For: Strong reviews, and praise for the performances - particularly from the children at the centre of the story, and Willem Dafoe, who plays the manager of the motel where they live.
这部亚当·桑德勒和德鲁·巴里摩尔主演的轻松浪漫喜剧,似乎最不能反映现实生活,但实际上它确实部分基于真实故事。桑德勒扮演的兽医爱上了巴里摩尔,而她的记忆每天都会重置。他了解到,车祸造成创伤性脑损伤后,她就一直在重播同一天。因为她一直生活在谎言中,桑德勒的角色很苦恼,并制作了一系列录像,解释她的车祸和生活,给她每天早上看。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Ironically the list comes out the same day that Trump is meeting with Bill Gates, who is the world's richest man for the fourth straight year.
  • 人社部:将会同财政部印发加快推进城乡居民养老保险基金委托投资的文件
  • Feng said that the Goal for 2017 is to maintain an overall punctuality rate of about 75%.
  • 集体经营性建设用地入市 小产权房有望“转正”吗?
  • 国内首部建材节能环保标准修订工作启动
  • 另外上榜的有Pink,勒布朗詹姆斯,赛琳娜戈麦斯,伊恩萨默海尔德,Jay-Z和碧昂丝夫妇,本阿弗莱克等明星。
    在第三场也是最后一场总统候选人辩论中,奥巴马就外交政策发起攻势,一再指责罗姆尼在重大国际问题上的立场不坚定,但未能给他对手迅速崛起的竞选活动一个致命打击。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 松下主攻欧洲LED照明市场 到2018年扩至360亿日元, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

湖南长沙一中介机构涉嫌骗取购房资格被调查

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

中国城镇家庭负债率升至5.5%

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 为提高中国足球在国际赛场上的竞争力,中国政府日前公布了最新的足球发展计划,将在2017年开设20000所足球专业学校,用于训练年轻球员、培养人才。
    Premiered on Jan 29, the drama received 7 points out of 10 on the country's popular review website Douban.
  • In dollar terms, imports plunged 18.8 per cent last month to $114.19, from a 7.6 per cent drop in January and versus an expected drop of 3.6 per cent.
    7.Drones
    approval
    Among French schools, Toulouse Business School made the best progress, up 14 places, after featuring in the Executive MBA ranking for the first time.
    据预测,在大宗商品价格上涨和需求温和上升的推动下,2017年以美元计的新兴市场国家出口额将出现自2014年以来的首次增长。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 专家解读房价降房租涨现象:越来越利于购房
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 调查:城市民宿发展迅猛 安全、卫生成矛盾焦点

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The excitement was triggered by a Reuters story that cited documents about the potential transaction as the source of its information. Samsung actually has made at least one play for BlackBerry BBRY -19.77% before, in 2012. As to this latest rumor, the alleged takeover target was the first to refute that a deal is in the works.
在过去的20年里,日本有些城市的生活成本达到过世界最高,但现在正在降低。东京和大阪分别降低了11名和14名。
根据这份由艾瑞咨询集团与新浪微博联合发布的报告表示,由新浪微博和电信巨头华为联合主办的2016超级红人节高峰论坛在上海举行。
consciousness
2016年,广东以逾7.9万亿元的地区生产总值(GDP),连续第28年稳居我国第一经济大省。
The University of Tokyo (22nd) and Kyoto University (35th) have maintained their positions as the leading universities in Asia.
Such borrowing is predicated in part on the assumption that by decontextualizing a style you also strip it of any possible negative implications: military, dynastic, what have you. It becomes an aesthetic form that exists on its own terms, as opposed to one that symbolizes all sorts of complicated societal or political convulsions.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • exposed
  • 楼市投资抛一线买二线靠谱吗?专家:需更谨慎
  • 6Ty]GB(JR*l7!Y(s5
    每个伟大的侦探都需要专属于自己的经典故事。对于福尔摩斯而言,这个故事是《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》。对于阿加莎?克里斯蒂笔下龟毛的比利时侦探赫克尔?波洛而言,这个故事是《东方快车谋杀案》——故事讲述了一个嗜血的恶棍在驶向巴尔干半岛的列车上杀死了一个有钱的商人。真相果真是如此吗?西德尼?吕美特曾在1974年将该故事拍成了一部备受喜爱的电影,强大的演员阵容包括肖恩?康纳利、英格丽?褒曼和阿尔伯特?芬尼(饰演侦探波洛)。如今肯尼思?布拉纳自己戴上了侦探波洛的大胡子,披挂上阵,同时又担当幕后导演。这部新版电影的演员有约翰尼?德普、黛西?雷德利、米歇尔?菲佛、佩内洛佩?克鲁斯和朱迪?丹奇。这个故事还能挖掘出什么新内容呢?也许会有。不过,即使没有,阿婆的粉丝也肯定会去看。这部电影将于11月3日在英国上映,11月10日在美国、中国和土耳其上映,11月30日在中国香港和新加坡上映。(资料来源:二十世纪福克斯电影公司)
  • 网上山寨店充斥 家居业被迫联合打假
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 估计当高盛公布自己2009年的奖金规模时,美国国会和媒体又会气得抓狂。但这些怨气终将只是过眼云烟,改变不了什么。所谓“高盛招人恨”的故事实在是拖得太长了。
    After a run with One Direction, Harry Styles could have gone anywhere he wanted.
  • 政府将于本周五发布新的就业市场报告,此次的报告将因飓风“桑迪”而出现失真。10月下旬的飓风给东北地区造成严重破坏,使很多人失业。经济学家说,“桑迪”有可能导致11月官方就业岗位总数暂时减少10万到15万个,这样一来,就业增量就不足10万,甚至还要低很多。[qh]
    These are just some of the issues that will face New Yorkers next year. And then there’s the new drum set the neighbor’s son received for Christmas ...
  • 下面是我对2010年美国经济以及市场前景最乐观也是最终的猜测。
    根据公安部的声明,自2015年9月以来,我国在放宽外国人居留、入境政策方面取得了巨大进步,帮助吸引了更多海外人才、促进了国际交流和经济发展。
  • 格雷格森还说,“与此同时,美国国内的油气产量将继续增长。我认为,对我们来说,问题不在于实际油价走势如何,关键是北美油砂、页岩气、页岩油产量以及其他地区页岩油气勘探水平的增幅能有多大程度的提高。”
    The CPI rose by 2 percent.
    Fluctuations of the markets led to a tightening of IPO approval to maintain stability, according to Frank Lyn, PwC China's mainland and Hong Kong Markets Leaders.
  • 公民价值观是民主政体最重要的资产。
    3.9 全面加强政府自身建设
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 房产专家:二手房或尾随一手房现价格下行 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

天津自贸区挂牌三周年 打造制度创新“高地”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

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Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

媒体:征收房产税不仅帮不到穷人 反而害了穷人

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

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Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • In addition, the last quarter of 2016 marked the first time that Huawei achieved a double-digit global market share.
  • 智能卫浴大放异彩 市场规范亟需完善

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • “If they, say, delay a customary process for Korean imports and take other retaliatory measures on Korean products, there is nothing Korea can do about it,” he said.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • The CPI rose by 2 percent.
    她笔下的人物们觉得自己为了登上“美国梦”的山巅,经历了漫长的排队等候,但是上山的队伍放慢了速度,甚至停顿下来了。而那些移民、黑人和其他“外来者”似乎还在插队。
    直播平台的观众可以给主播送需要花钱买的虚拟礼物。礼物的价格从0.1元到1000元不等。直播平台从中抽取一定比例的提成。
  • 信任感依然会是商业领域中唯一且最关键的问题。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • n. 争斗,战斗
  • 竞争压力激增导致卫浴倒闭现象频发
  • 尽管与普通的开瓶器并无二致,但它拥有精良的设计,是由不锈钢和实木制成的。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • “Chris-crossing Venice” 2016 CG最新形象大片
  • Household substance abuse
  • 天津700吨危险化学品氰化钠处理全追踪
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

LED照明行业无序竞争摊薄市场利润 整合并购潮仍将持续

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 宜家:家居用品中50%非可再生材料将被回收
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 河北石家庄开始办理港澳台居民居住证 首次申领免费
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

台湾电影无缘2012奥斯卡最佳外语片

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

"Sure, there are only whites in the stadium. It comes down to money," said Ana Beatriz Ferreira, a 27-year-old parking attendant in Rio de Janeiro, who is black. "Nobody I know could find affordable tickets."
就零工经济的命运来说,英国将是一个值得关注的关键国家。英国政府将对一份关于英国法律是否跟得上这一新趋势的独立评估做出回应。考虑到政府的脆弱性和耗时的英国退欧进程,现在似乎不太可能出台大胆的政策行动——无论是支持还是反对在线劳动力平台。
Hidrate Spark 2会通过移动App跟踪你的水摄入量和记录你一天喝了多少盎司的水,还可以根据在有盎司数标识的水瓶里灌了几次水来跟踪你的饮水量。
Management and leadership skills are just one aspect of EMBAs. “It actually made an entrepreneur of me,” says one graduate. Nearly a third (31 per cent)of graduates have set up their own company, or are about to, since enrolling on their EMBA four or five years ago. FT data show that 91 per cent of the businesses are operating today.
Asia and Australia account for 11 of the world's top 20 most expensive cities, with eight from Europe and one from South America, the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU) worldwide cost of living index found. No North American cities featured in the top 20.
Teach First补充称,与企业的合作非常重要,这不仅是因为资金问题,还因为这能帮助学校让学生掌握现代雇主所需要的更多技巧。
上周二,Snapchat推出了一种名为Discover的服务,Vice、CNN和《人物》杂志等媒体可通过它在Snapchat发布视频内容。已经有几个频道推出广告服务,要价可不便宜。据《广告周刊》报道,Snapchat的广告标价是每天75万美元。
"Their political leanings are even affecting how they experience weather, which is pretty fascinating," said Cox.
In 2016, we've seen a whole lot of new gadgets join the Internet of Things (unfortunately, we've also seen them harnessed by hackers to bring downhuge swaths of the internet). From appliances to clothing, companies really want to sell you the tech that'll make your life "smarter," but sometimes it just makes it slower and dumber. Let's look back on some of the most ridiculous and useless internet-connected gadgets that were produced in the past 12 months.
It is the continual shrinkage of components that have unleashed the explosion of computing power and enabled these gadgets to be accessible to people across the world.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • What’s more, a Fiat engine not only places among Wards’ top 10 for the first time, it’s for an electric motor, the 83-kW unit found under the hood of the diminutive 500e. Unfortunately the car is only sold in California, though market forces might convince the automaker to send it into wider distribution should gas prices gain spike up to the $4.00/gallon mark or above.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • WOLF HALL (PBS, April 5) In the season’s most promising piece of casting, Damian Lewis (“Homeland”) will play Henry VIII and the two-time Tony Award winner Mark Rylance will play Thomas Cromwell in this “Masterpiece” adaptation of the popular Hilary Mantel historical novels.
  • 为了智能家居 小米申请了一项箱子外观专利
  • Only asset management firms saw profits rise, up 16.7 per cent year-on-year to Rmb3.7bn.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 思路决定出路 房地产如何迎接供给侧改革
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
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This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

银川二手房价“五连降” 中介或将寒冬更寒

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