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华侨城:上半年归属股东净利润20.14亿元 同比增16.16%

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 低档木材冒充高档木材 实木家具引发纠纷不断 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

广告成木门企业营销热捧模式 创意之外还需有个“度”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

克里斯托弗诺兰的这部二战题材电影可能就是最佳影片的领跑者。
As the cameras cut away to the cast and crew of "La La Land" hugging, Beatty could be heard saying something such as, "It says Emma Stone," with Dunaway replying, "What?" As the La La Land cast were walking on stage to accept the accolade, a stagehand standing in the wings could be heard saying "Oh ... Oh my god, he got the wrong envelope".
Price growth in top cities was slower, however, with Beijing, for instance, reporting a rise of only 0.5 per cent from the previous month, compared to 4.9 per cent in September.
On the occasion of the New Year, may my wife and I extend to you and yours our warmest greetings, wishing you a happy New Year, your career greater success and your family happiness.
制造业及休闲和酒店服务业应会继续创造就业岗位。美国的工厂是复苏早期的推动者,尽管增长放缓,工厂应该会继续有选择地扩员。继2010年每月增加约9,000个就业岗位之后,今年以来制造业每月增加约1.6万个就业岗位。欧洲、日本和中国经济增长放缓损害了全球贸易流。但最近,更多公司高管开始意识到,在美国制造比在中国等地制造好处更多。与此同时,包括酒店在内的休闲服务业整年都是就业岗位增长的一个可靠来源。[qh]
2. Luminous Intimacy: The Cinema of Nathaniel Dorsky and Jerome Hiler All praise and many deep-felt thanks to the New York Film Festival for programming this sublime dual retrospective.
在这部1998年的古装剑侠动作电影中,安东尼奥·班德拉斯扮演了一个无聊的贵族,他有时会扮成蒙面歹徒,从腐败领导人手中拯救加州的墨西哥平民。虽然佐罗听起来可能像个普通的老派超级英雄,但是《佐罗的面具》依据的故事大部分来源于现实世界中,一个叫乔伊·穆里埃塔的亡命之徒。

Emily Ratajkowski managed to steal the show, opting for a seriously saucy twist on the classic ballgown. Opting for a semi-sheer lacey black number, the We Are Your Friends actress ensured her world-famous figure was on display.
['hedwei]
Of the 27 provincial-level regions that outpaced the country's 6.7% GDP growth in 2016, only three regions - Chongqing, Guizhou and Tibet - achieved double-digit growth.
It was addressed to Clark C Moore, who has since changed his name to Muhammad Siddeeq, making it hard to trace him.
将第1题到第9题的分数相加,计算自己在“消极情感”维度的得分。

Footnotes

  • 家居卖场无条件退货藏“猫腻”
  • White people’s officially privileged status waned over the latter half of the 20th century with the demise of discriminatory practices in, say, university admissions. But rising wages, an expanding social safety net and new educational opportunities helped offset that. Most white adults were wealthier and more successful than their parents, and confident that their children would do better still.

詹姆斯?弗兰科的关于拍摄《房间》的新片会让你笑破肚皮,但是这部电影具有深刻内涵,而不是简单的嘲讽。
智能冰箱
Ladies and gentlemen, may I welcome you to the Bad Manners Awards 2016?
《X战警:天启》据悉将于2016年5月27日上映。
The US and European steel industries have accused China’s heavily subsidised sector of flooding the global market with steel, “dumping” it by selling below production costs and driving down international prices. The collapse in steel prices in recent years has caused the closure of mills across the world from Australia to the UK and parts of the US industrial heartland.
国有企业员工对年终奖表达了比民营企业更高的满意度。这一点毫不奇怪,因为国企的平均年终奖是17318元人民币,比民企的预期年终奖高了大约6000元人民币。

顾家家居IPO隐忧:深陷“抄袭门” 受房地产调控牵制

References

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