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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

5月30日,日本南部海岸附近发生了强烈地震,使中国民众担心,继2011年后,类似海啸和福岛核电站熔融的大灾难会再次发生。不过,最后并没有出现人员死亡或重大损毁的报道。

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The Glory of Tang Dynasty
如果您以前听过这句话,那就当我没说:一家未经考验,没有任何收入的社交媒体公司获得一个令人晕眩的的报价。不顾所有人的建议,那位自命不凡,二十出头的CEO拒绝出售。与此同时,不知从哪儿冒出来的竞争对手突然发起诉讼,言之凿凿地声称他们的创意被窃取了。
中国外汇储备在今年前11个月中的9个月下降,目前约为3.43万亿美元。投资者抛售人民币资产以保护自己免受贬值影响,而央行出售外汇储备中的美元以遏止人民币弱势。中国利率不断下降,而美联储(Federal Reserve)预计很快将开始加息,也助燃了资本外流。中国外汇储备曾在10月轻微反弹,似乎表明外流已趋于停止。

We will ensure workplace safety and people's lives.
Chen Yu, vice-president of the China Association for Employment Promotion, said a startup may be meaningful, but one should not expect too much from it.
With the second round of (re)negotiations closing on Tuesday we have truly entered the technocratic phase of these trade talks.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

政策之力 中国楼市走出了怎样的市场曲线?

It was the second weekend in a row that Venezuela's socialist government opened the long-closed border with Colombia and by 6 a.m. Sunday a line of would-be shoppers snaked through the entire town of San Antonio del Tachira. Some had traveled in chartered buses from cities 10 hours away.
James Bond Themes 1. "Goldfinger" by Shirley Bassey
On April 24, Zhou took the pesticide to the Yimin Technician Training School in Rongchang, Chongqing and hid the toxic substance under a desk.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

The reason for its high valuation is based on the fact that it was the first time China Post released stamps featuring the Chinese Zodiac since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
This one's just like looking in the mirror, mainly because Derrick Rose was in high school just six years ago in 2006.
n. 温室,暖房

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • 温州看房团杭州买房记:中产家庭深陷投资焦虑
  • 刚需巨量存在 房价高居不降:北上广深买房纠结
  • 根据美国影院业主协会的数据显示,2015年全球影院收益达383亿美元创新高,中国贡献了68亿美元的票房收入,较上一年增长了近五成。
    In one example, Christie’s was offering the mid-18th-century canvas “Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well” by the Venetian artist Francesco Fontebasso at a low estimate of 120,000. The pleasant piece of rococo decoration had been bought at auction in 1990 for $286,000, according to Artnet. At the Dec. 8 sale it fell to a single telephone bid of 115,000, about $170,000, before fees. Investors do not expect to incur a loss of about 40 percent a quarter century after buying a Warhol or a Basquiat. Reselling an old master can be even harder when that painting has been languishing in a dealer’s gallery.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 楼市逐步降温 调控政策正在有效围剿炒房客, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

公租房建设运营2020年将继续享受税收优惠

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

人民日报:坚持推动我国经济实现高质量发展

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    However, strong progress across the main rankings does not automatically translate into European success. Sa Business School at the University of Oxford, for example, rose one place in the MBA ranking, five places in the ranking of open executive programmes and broke into the top 10 of the Executive MBA ranking for the first time by moving up 12 places, but its European ranking remains unchanged, at 10th.
    奥巴马在该推文中引用曼德拉的话称:“没有人生来就因为他人的肤色、背景或宗教信仰而憎恨他们……”
    宣布的
    Bill Gates topped the list of the world's richest billionaires for the 17th time in 22 years, it has been revealed.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 不合格儿童地垫易致甲醛超标 会影响孩子视力和发育
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 多项减税新举措助力企业轻装前行

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

这是第二枚被拍卖的诺贝尔和平奖奖牌,得主是第一个获得该奖项的拉美人——1936年诺贝尔和平奖奖牌被授予当年的阿根廷外长卡洛斯·萨维德·拉莫斯。
WORST GREETING
对于精打细算的旅客来说,尼泊尔一直是绝佳的好去处。无论是该地区的徒步路线还是南部地区的野外生物,在世界范围内都是赫赫有名。平均每人每天的旅行花费大概只在50美元左右。
The number of moviegoers in 2016 reached 1.37 billion, an increase of nearly 8.9 percent year-on-year.
它有力地提醒我们,性革命、女性进入职场、消费主义的盛行以及太空时代都有阴暗的一面,有些人在其中受到了伤害。这是该剧具有强大影响力的一个原因。
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由美国演员Jared Leto领衔的“火星三十秒”拿到了最佳另类音乐奖,同时还有Lana Del Rey,Lorde,The XX和Imanine Dragons等人提名。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Nearly 40 percent of China's young people born after 1990 have turned off notifications from social media apps due to the perceived negative impact of social media, according to the recently released Kantar China Social Media Impact Report, Beijing Evening News reported.
  • 改革开放40年全国个体工商户增长500多倍
  • 另一条推文发表于美国总统就职日,奥巴马称:“能够为你们服务是我毕生的荣幸,你们使我成为了更好的领袖和更好的人。”
    n. 检查,支票,账单,制止,阻止物,检验标准,方格图案
  • 写字楼休息区成烟民“过瘾”地
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 中国机器人产业联盟理事长曲道奎称,尽管我国本国供应商在2016年将市场占有率扩至32.7%,去年这一趋势出现反转,其市场占有率降至26.8%。
    The banking industry has been experiencing a low profit growth period and will be for a long time, the National Business Daily reported, citing an expert. He said the banks' yearly profits growth reached 35 to 40 per cent in the past dozen years, but now the growth had slowed to less than 1 per cent, with some banks even recording a loss.
  • 加拿大学校继续失利。今年的上榜学校只有3所,而去年为5所,而且这3所学校的排名都下降了6个位次左右。多伦多大学(University of Toronto)罗特曼商学院(Rotman School of Management)排名最高,为第65位,而加拿大女王大学(Queen’s University)史密斯商学院(Smith School of Business)在今年的榜单中垫底,排名第100。
    Where Goods Made From Trafficked Wildlife Go
  • There are two concerns about taking a so-called survival job. It could distract you from your job search, and potential employers may have trouble envisioning you in your previous professional role.
    吉密欧(Jamil Anderlini)
  • 全球最佳大学排行榜是根据科睿唯安公司提供的数据和标准得出的。
    乌拉圭之所以取得成功,不仅仅是因为它对足球的激情,还因为其早期文化的包容性。在1950年世界杯上,当时其邻国巴西仍然对黑人球员心存怀疑,乌拉圭队却以拥有一位黑人队长、杰出的巴雷拉而感到自豪。此外,乌拉圭在世界杯成型期的胜利造就了延续至今的血统,它的很多球员如今都在海外的一些世界豪门俱乐部踢球,如利物浦的苏亚雷斯和巴黎圣日耳曼的卡瓦尼。
    Cliff Stevenson, an anti-dumping expert who publishes the report based on data filed with the WTO, said the surge in US cases was driven largely by the steel industry. The increase also represented the range of countries from China to Australia, the UK and the Netherlands against which US companies were willing to file anti-dumping complaints.
  • China Everbright, the financial conglomerate that bought the Dah Sing Financial Centre for HK$10bn ($1.29bn), is just one of a number of mainland Chinese companies to have splashed out on headquarters in the city over the past year.
    展示自己,每时每刻
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 学区房买不起 夫妻离婚让孩子户口转到热点学区 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

杭州在全国率先推出不动产抵押登记“全程网办”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

荣麟家居启动线上打假

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

新商标法施行后略显效果 宁波建材市场驰名商标弱化

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

民建联调查发现逾半受访者满意香港整体房屋政策

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 实际上,有一句俗语就是这样说的:“如果你拥有了龟兹,那么西域99%的城邦都会服从你。”
  • 广州2018年住宅用地供应同比增四成

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 到了明年3月,这些明日之星中很有可能会有1-2个人脱颖而出,可以成为球队基石。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 让爱情多姿多彩:荷兰培育出彩虹玫瑰(图)
    源于:Turkey土耳其,火鸡原产于土耳其地区。
    Thus it's rather a shock when you first encounter Nick D'Aloisio striding into London's Bar Boulud restaurant, firmly shaking hands and proceeding to outline his entrepreneurial vision. To imagine him in person, picture a Silicon Valley CEO blessed with an easy manner and 97th percentile media skills. Picture a guy who can confidently expound (while maintaining steady eye contact) on topics ranging from Noam Chomsky's theories to the science of neural networks to the immigrant mind-set to the Buddhist concept of jnana. And now picture this fellow trapped inside the gangly body of a British teen who might easily be mistaken for a member of the pop boy band One Direction-clad in a hipster T-shirt beneath a fitted blazer, hair swooping over his forehead, taking bites of a cheeseburger between bold pronouncements.
  • 1985年2月是全球表面温度低于给定月份的20世纪平均值的最后一个月份,这意味着所有年龄在30岁以下的人都没有经历过低于平均温度的月份。最后一个低于20世纪平均温度的年度是1976年。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 此外,排名前列的城市的“成本”、“文化与居民生活”两项指标普遍不高。在满足民众需求、并提供高质量生活方面,中国的“机遇城市”仍然面临挑战。
  • 绿色建材市场混乱 行业缺乏标准认证体系
  • 单词deputy 联想记忆:

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 新机场接通保障电源 供水干线已开建
  • Household substance abuse
  • 二手市场低迷中见一丝曙光
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

部分房地产中介哄抬房价 怂恿客户故意虚报价格

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 智慧家庭服务发展白皮书诞生 助力智能家居发展
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • “蓝领公寓”政策破冰 专家:有利于行业规范
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

5.生物医学工程师

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

斯特罗恩表示,他认为IP-BOX运用了和FBI没有经过苹果公司的帮助而破解塞义德·法鲁克iPhone 5c相同的技术。现在FBI已经开始向其他执法部门提供帮助解锁iPhone,iPad或者iPod Touch的方法。苹果方面正在积极寻找FBI是如何破解iPhone的,并将推出软件更新来关闭这些漏洞。
1. Apple. Brand love: 57% / Rank: 32
Falke的最终失利令人扼腕,但eBay的表现确实无可匹敌。我以为自己对eBay的爱将矢志不渝,因为鄙人全部的穿戴和家中物件均来自这家公司,而它却向《纽约时报》(the New York Times)表示:“我们热切希望利用我们的平台,通过营造公平的竞争环境来造福数百万人。”
位于加州的斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)排名第二,2016年排在第五位,该学院曾在2014年获得亚军。宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院(Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania)排名第三。
You see all kinds of grisly, hairy characters on the Tube but few commuters would've expected to see a pack of pandas on the platform.
This means war: Christopher Nolan's second film not set in the present (or future) is an epic tableau about the rescue of hundreds of thousands of troops from the French coast. Tom Hardy, Mark Rylance, Kenneth Branagh, Cillian Murphy and, er, Harry Styles, star. Think Saving Private Ryan, but saltier.
2=中立
中国旅游研究院的蒋依依建议,中国政府应实行一项长期的国家计划,以提升国家形象并投资于入境旅游以吸引更多游客前来。
At age 20, the teen prodigy of "Royals" raised the bar, marrying the massive vistas of electronic music alongside the human-scaled and handmade on her second LP, with help from co-producer Jack Antonoff.
理由有两方面:首先,从逻辑上讲,你实在有太多的机会被人抓住你在搜索工作。简历的副本会被发现。计算机服务器会被检查。工作伙伴会从表面上或者情绪上(多半是后者)察觉到你为面试而心不在焉。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

地方楼市畸形分化 行政干预可能性不大

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 米拉·库尼斯继续在各种性感女星排行榜上占据一席之地。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • adj. 群众的,大规模
  • 经济整体升级势不可挡 家居企业的春天正在到来
  • v. 投,掷,抛,铸造,丢弃,指定演员,加起来,投射(目
  • 北京租房故事:背负着工作爱情家庭和未来的我们在其中不断迁徙
  • 你可能觉得我们对于列清单的爱好是从“十诫”继承而来,但安伯托·艾柯( Umberto Eco)的说法却正相反,“清单是文化的起源”,他写过一本书,《无限的清单》(The Infinity of Lists),书中在讨论自己熟悉的东西时这样说道。而且,文化希望“让无限变得可以理解”,并且“创造秩序——不是永远如此,但通常都是这样”,所以才有了荷马在《伊利亚特》中的人名清单,以及你冰箱上贴着的,永远做不完的家务清单。“我们喜欢清单,因为我们不想死,”艾柯还说,这可能是对“清单体”(listicle)的最佳解释了。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 陶瓷片密封水嘴合格率才七成 代工生产偷工减料
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • outstanding
  • 克普克表示,在这些情况下,美联储不但能引发危机,还会增加新兴市场因其他因素引发危机的脆弱性。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2018年北京GDP首破3万亿

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