Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 家居团购表面让利 实则暗藏玄机.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
Song “Beautiful China”(Sha Baoliang and Xu Qianya)
“A worker sent a text to a colleague saying he was quitting and asked her to forward it to management.”
You can read the full list of stories, but here are the top five:
While the currency exchange limit has not changed, individuals are now required to disclose specific details on how they will use the funds. Funds can only be used towards current account spending such as tourism and shopping, overseas study, foreign medical care and consulting services. Real estate and other investment spending are explicitly forbidden.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
Manal al-Sharif is best known for challenging laws and mores that keep women down in her native country.
Businesswomen are booming in Asia: The whole region makes a strong showing, from China and Singapore to New Zealand and Thailand. Entrepreneurship is on the rise: see Zhang Xin (No. 50) , Sun Yafang (No. 77) and Solina Chau (No. 80). And Asian region women are showing their political might, from newcomer Park Geun-hye, the South Korean president (No. 11) and Burmese dissident and parliamentarian Aung San Suu Kyi (No. 29) to Australian PM Julia Gillard (No. 28) and Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra (No. 31).
"To make the world a better place, I invented a transformative water purifier," Google quoted Zhang as saying. "It takes in dirty and polluted water from rivers, lakes and even oceans, then massively transforms the water into clean, safe and sanitary water. When humans and animals drink this water, they will live a healthier life."
The number of candidates for the 2016 national civil service exam has surpassed last year's numbers, with more than 132,000 applicants on Tuesday－the most in a single day－deemed qualified for the exam.
Along with having her artwork featured on Google's homepage, Zhang wins a $30,000 college scholarship. In addition, her school will receive a $50,000 Google for Education technology grant, and the company is donating $20,000 in her name to a charity dedicated to bringing clean water to schools in Bangladesh.
Unlicensed drivers who engage in the services will face a fine ranging from 10 thousand yuan ($1,500) to 30 thousand yuan ($4,500).
Employers have stepped up their hiring recently, adding 171,000 jobs in October and an average of 157,000 a month so far this year. That's a better pace than last year and the strongest job growth since 2006, Labor Department data show.[qh]
Slow growth around the world won't hurt the U.S. all that much. American exports might flatten out or even dip, but that would be offset by lower imports of petroleum because of sinking oil prices. So the trade deficit is unlikely to get further out of whack.
继8月中旬贬值后，人民币在9月和10月有所上涨，但在11月再度走低，昨日人民币汇率收跌至三个月最疲弱水平，为1美元兑6.4082元人民币。“中国周边很多国家自10月份起经历了一些资本外流，中国也未能幸免，”深圳招商证券(China Merchants Securities)经济学家谢亚轩表示。“美元走强势必在一定程度上引发转投美元资产的行为。”
Effective bosses and managers tend to:
China will remain an important engine for world growth amid sluggish global economic recovery.
The study is available online.