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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

It is also argued that Friends came about as the family unity of small-town America was being replicated in major urban centers as young people migrated without the maturity or streetsmarts to live alone. Before Friends, sitcoms tended to focus on family dynamics, with parents being the central characters. But when young people strike out on their own in the big city, who do they have for support? They must rely on each other to endure through the overwhelming confusion of youth.

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伦敦商学院今年在英国《金融时报》每年发布的4项排名中的表现,令其在欧洲最优秀的81所商学院中拔得头筹,这4项排名是:MBA、高管MBA(EMBA)、管理硕士(MiM)以及高管教育。(有两所商学院因得分相同并列第80位。)
“整个20世纪下半叶,在世界各地,贸易和经济增速都出现了这么大的差异。所有的专业化分工都意味着出口增长快于GDP增长,”威廉姆斯说。
China has been making progress in terms of prevention and control of AIDS, said Wang Bin, an NHC official in charge of disease prevention, during the press conference.

单词polish 联想记忆:
4. 蕾哈娜
农林牧渔和服务业是应届毕业生签约行业中薪资水平较低的行业,月薪分别为3347元和3115元。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

3月二手楼市成交全国普涨 长三角3城涨幅最大

adj. 傲慢的,自大的
Over 10- and 20-year stretches, geographic and asset class diversification have proven beneficial for returns and risk management. Unfortunately, you are not guaranteed to see the benefits of such a strategy during any 12-month period. In an era of 140-character writing and two-minute video, should we be surprised that investors have trouble judging the success of their portfolios over long periods?
?奥巴马总统在纽约和新泽西宣布一场“大灾难”。洪水摧毁了海岸和超过230万人失去了电。在新泽西国家警卫队从洪水中救出数百人。州长克里斯?克里斯蒂,共和党人,说这次损失是“无法想象的”。他赞扬了从奥巴马那收到的“突出”配合。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

While the political system will be fixated on preserving stability as new leaders take the helm, reduced economic flexibility could thwart Beijing's intentions to do so.
会。美国政府在垂直合并案上已有数十年没赢过。据美国司法部(Department of Justice)自己的审查指导原则,像时代华纳这样的内容所有者与AT&T这样的分销商之间的“垂直合并”,远不如水平合并那么令人担忧。与此同时,Facebook、亚马逊(Amazon)、Netflix和谷歌(Google)这四巨头(合称FANG,取每家名称首字母)如今主宰了数字娱乐版图,这使得政府的如下论点更难以站住脚:两家传统媒体公司的合并,会从根本上改变竞争态势。
We will make a big push for progress in the reform of the social system.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • We were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way
  • 佛山千家重污染企业停产 家具五金等行业在列
  • On the a monthly basis prices fell by an average 0.5 per cent.
  • 天猫遭19家居卖场联手封杀? 卖场回应:只是规范电商操作
  • 二线城市楼市火热之后 楼市调控路径隐现
  • 《伯德小姐》
    While China remains the largest holder of American government securities, it cut down exposure to USD 1.25 trillion in October.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 整合一线建材家居品牌 实力卖场自建装饰公司, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

3月份古镇灯饰价格指数:商业照明艰难爬升 户外照明震荡上行

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

83.2%受访北上广深青年关注所在城市积分落户政策

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The Aftermath of Zika Virus
    在Teach First当老师能够不受此类条件束缚,体现了该项目的优势——该机构不仅是英国私营部门招聘企业的竞争对手,也成了它们的一所精修学校。
  • 《美国队长3:内战》将于2016年5月6日在各大影院上映。美国队长与钢铁侠开战,你支持谁?
    Enrollment: NA
    穆迪分析(Moody's Analytics)在报告发布之前表示:“由于大宗商品价格不断下跌,生产者价格仍将处于下行趋势。”
    "The essential question of the Sino-Japanese relationship is if Japan can accept the fact that China is growing stronger and more powerful." CUI TIANKAI, member of the CPPCC National Committee and vice-minister of foreign affairs
    Let’s never spend our New Year apart.让我们永不独享新年。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 环保成发展主旋律 水性涂料项目投资占比较大
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 2013中国涂料品牌榜结果揭晓

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

此外,她还指出同工同酬的问题。她表示这不仅仅是女性的问题,这实际影响到每一个人。希拉里表示:"如果你有妻子,母亲,姐妹,女儿,她们在工作中没有被公平对待,那么整个家庭都会为此受影响。"
While the WeChat use of the "post-90s" generation has slightly decreased, from 94.1 percent to 86.6 percent.
Statistics showed that Tibet had around 590,000 rural poor by the end of 2015.
我更愿意和别人保持距离
到了20世纪下半叶,随着歧视逐渐减少(比如在大学入学方面),白人的正式特权地位也在渐渐丧失。但是工资的增长、社会安全网的扩大以及新的受教育机会有助于弥补他们的损失。大多数成年白人都比父母更富裕、更成功,他们相信子女们会过得更好。
But although he foresees a “noticeable pick-up in exports” in the first quarter of 2017, the UBS man is keen to play down any euphoria. He believes year-on-year growth will weaken and maybe even turn negative by the second half of 2017 because “volume is not picking up in a big way and the base effect [of last year’s weak commodity prices] will fall off” during the course of 2017.
Australian and Spanish schools are doing well, however. Each country’s three representatives have risen up the ranking. Sydney’s Macquarie Graduate School of Management is Australia’s top placed institution at 49 and Spain’s IE Business School moved up four places to eighth, the first time since 2012 that the Madrid school is back in the top 10.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • “我们从斯雷布雷尼察大屠杀事件了解了荷兰和荷兰人是什么样的,”埃尔多安说起现代荷兰历史上最可耻的一幕,“我们从他们屠杀那里的8000名波斯尼亚人就知道,他们品德败坏到何等地步。”
  • 三四线城市也须坚持“房住不炒”
  • Belize's proximity to Mexico and the Caribbean ensures the street-food scene, providing an abundance of budget meal options.
    清华大学(Tsinghua)与欧洲工商管理学院(Insead University)合办的Tiemba项目排名上升两位,在2015年全球EMBA排行榜中摘得桂冠,而Trium项目的排名回落至第三,仅在头名位置维持一年时间。
  • 家具行业产能过剩日益突出 转型升级是关键
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • In month-on-month terms, consumer prices fell 0.1 per cent after having risen 0.7 per cent a month earlier.
    一些智能的床会让你有更好的睡眠质量和睡眠姿势,但也会让你变成一个检查配偶是否出轨的私家侦探。除了检测这个床垫是否舒适,它会在有其他人占用你的床的时候提醒你。
  • Wardrobe malfunctions was another common theme. Some hapless interviewees “showed up in sweatpants,” one “was wearing mismatched shoes,” and another “didn’t realize his zipper was down.”
    智能水瓶
  • 2. 在原来工作岗位上呆太久了
    它被广泛误解为一部关于小说家大卫·福斯特·华莱士(David Foster Wallace)的传记电影,其实庞索特的这部影片是一部关于新闻的坏方法的喜剧,以及对文学名誉机制充满了解的辛酸讽刺。杰西·艾森伯格(Jesse Eisenberg)与杰森·西格尔(Jason Segel)使用“男人老友电影”(buddy movie)的传统方式,完美地呈现出一个新的子类:亦敌亦友电影。
  • 在海外工作过至少6个月的女性少于男性(比例分别为42%和52%),但动机完全一样:加强管理能力、打造自己的人脉以及提高薪资。
    “一带一路”战略:“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”
    “邦德对待女人的态度是那种高高在上的、肉欲的,这完全符合007系列小说中邦德的形象。但我创作出十分强势的女人,与他难分伯仲地竞争,他的看法由此受到挑战。
  • 冲击奖项:最佳影片、最佳原创剧本奖项的提名应该是肯定的,而弗兰西斯麦克多蒙德现在是奥斯卡最佳女主角奖的最热人选。
    这个系列的特制镜框和太阳墨镜以“DVF|为谷歌眼镜设计”为标签,价格高达1,600美元以上。迄今为止,谷歌已经和雷朋(Ray-Ban)眼镜的生产商陆逊梯卡(Luxottica)以及其他几家提供时尚眼镜的公司如普拉达(Prada)等展开过合作。它还招募了曾在艺术网站Art.com担任首席市场官的时尚总监艾维o罗斯来领导谷歌眼镜团队。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 下月不动产登记暂行条例实施 楼市是否遭棒喝 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

中国瓷砖行业路在何方

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

LED企业紧握“互联网+”行动的三大法则

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

地价环比增速回落 居民对房价上涨预期有所降温

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

环保理念受重视 实木橱柜崭露头角

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 美联储上个月公布了今年放缓购债步伐的时间表。美联储计划在每一次政策会议上将购债规模减少100亿美元,直到今年年底不再进行购债。自从2012年末以来,美联储每个月都买入850亿美元美国国债和住房抵押贷款支持证券。
  • He said his talks with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry earlier this week indicated that the U.S. is ready to move toward "settling issues that can only be settled through joint efforts."
  • 125件黑龙江家具首次通过欧亚大陆桥出口欧洲

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • remembrance
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 人事工作类
    The military parade in Beijing on Sept. 3 that commemorated the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II was the news event that users looked up the most on Baidu's search platform. The celebration featured thousands of troops marching past President Xi Jinping and his predecessors, Hu Jintao and Jiang Zemin, as well as foreign leaders, including President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia.
    单词benefit 联想记忆:
  • “…was snervous she almost fainted.”

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • The maker of Post-it notes and Scotch tape authorized a $12 billion stock repurchase program in February, replacing its current $7.5 buyback program. 3M's (MMM, Fortune 500) move followed its announcement late last year that it intends to spend $10 billion on acquisitions and repurchase up to $22 billion of shares over the next four years.
  • 北京租客诉自如甲醛超标 反遭自如公司起诉“违约”
  • channel

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 首套房贷利率连涨19个月!贷200万要多还30万利息
  • Household substance abuse
  • 居然之家大兴店即将开业 京郊高端家居商圈逐渐成形
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

上证中证将于9月17日推出智能家居指数

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 部分长租公寓装修污染调查
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 北漂青年用力扎根:花掉一半儿工资来租房
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

公司一直都在寻求省钱的办法,将一些自由职业者能胜任的工作外包出去。虚拟助理可以做许多全职员工可以做的工作,但是忠诚度却比较低。这些员工可以帮助拓展商业渠道,或者促进事情更加顺利进行。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

China’s trade with the rest of the world fell sharply in October from a year earlier, with imports of raw materials particularly hard hit as slowing Chinese investment feeds through into weaker demand in the world’s biggest trader of goods.
[iks'tend]
Coming of age: in the modern banlieues of Paris and in San Francisco in the 1970s. These movies dramatize the harrowing, thrilling passage to womanhood with unsparing honesty and infinite compassion.
'Blue Jasmine' belongs, chronologically, to Woody Allen's late period of self-renewal. Artistically, however, it's a comfortable fit with some of the brightest comedies-the brightest/bleakest/wriest comedies-he's ever done. The centerpiece is Cate Blanchett's astonishing performance as Blanche duBois re-imagined to be the half-mad ex-wife of Alec Baldwin's crypto-Bernie Madoff. Not all that far from the center, Sally Hawkins, Andrew Dice Clay, Bobby Cannavale and Louis C.K., among others, maneuver their way through mine fields of deceit and disappointment.
Emma Morano’s singular achievement in life may have been perseverance. She lived for 117 years, crediting her longevity to raw eggs and her lack of a husband. She died on April 15.
单词channel 联想记忆:
More advanced components are in short supply, however, which could leave many customers waiting long after September to get hold of the new iPhone. That presents an opportunity for rivals such as Samsung’s new Note 8 or Essential, the smartphone maker led by Android co-founder Andy Rubin, which is targeting premium customers such as Apple’s with its slick $699 device. Google is also said to be preparing a new version of its Pixel smartphone, which has proved popular with early adopters.
If You're Unemployed:
《胡润百富榜》追踪逾2000名净财富在3亿美元或以上的民营企业家,今年的榜单新增了179位富豪。
The US and European steel industries have accused China’s heavily subsidised sector of flooding the global market with steel, “dumping” it by selling below production costs and driving down international prices. The collapse in steel prices in recent years has caused the closure of mills across the world from Australia to the UK and parts of the US industrial heartland.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

2016年LED照明行业十大热点新闻事件

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • vi. 谈话,讲述
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Man got to tell himself he understand.
  • 曲美家居拟6000万元设立合资家居公司 持股60%
  • 当大脑没有得到充分休眠时,它确实就开始自噬了。在我们睡觉的时候,“清除”程序通常就会启动,但长期缺乏睡眠会使该程序处于高速运转状态,促使大脑清除大量神经元连接和突触连接。
  • 传LED企业凤光传奇老板跑路 资金链断裂欠款7000万
  • 这一现象值得注意。巴西是个多种族国家,黑人占总人口比例位居世界第二,仅低于尼日利亚。在2010年的人口普查中,超过一半的巴西人认为自己是黑人或混血儿。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • UL与美国绿色建筑委员会建立独家战略合作伙伴关系
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • demonstration
  • 某种程度上,这种借鉴是基于这样的假设:把一种时装风格从它自身的环境中剥离出来,就能同时去除它所有潜在的负面寓意:譬如战争和王朝。它会变成一种独立存在的审美形式,不再象征任何复杂的社会和政治动荡。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

A股市场迎牛市利好 六月楼市将迎“开门红”

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