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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

单词associate 联想记忆:

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in内+tend伸展+ed→故意的;打算中的
自2004年抵达土星以来,卡西尼号宇宙飞船已经将土星、土星环及土星卫星的图片传送回地球。卡西尼号于9月完成使命,按计划撞向土星大气层中焚毁。卡西尼号在研究土星的同时,还探索了可能存在外星生命的土卫六和土卫二。它使人们更加深入地了解了太阳系,这种影响还将持续,科学家将继续对它收集的数据进行分析。
n. [宗

In comparison, second-tier cities reported worsening congestion, an increase of 3.7% on average, with Chongqing, Changchun, Jiaxing and Shenyang leading the rate of growth at over 7%.
每天向大家推送短小精悍的英语学习资料.
Below are a number of statements that people often use to describe themselves.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

紧跟绿色环保潮流 门窗企业需推要陈出新

1.你一夜之间成了领英平台的香饽饽。
Sonneborn, who lives in Bristol, Vermont, with his parents and younger sister, Julia, 11, is seeking the Democratic nomination.
Dachis says: The end of year iPhone 5 and iPad Mini releases overcame early controversies in overseas manufacturing and any lingering effects from the death of Steve Jobs to make Apple the biggest mover of the year.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

我们希望看到的亚太地区是一个稳定、有秩序的地区,是一个可以协商一致、达成原则的地区,是一个有能力管控分歧的地区,也是一个有智慧解决争端的地区。
2013年日圆兑美元下跌21%,这为日本吸引来1,000万海外游客,尽管中日两国在东中国海(中国称东海)存在领土争端,然而这些游客中有许多是来自中国的富人。
Import growth lifted year-on-year to a pace of 17.7 per cent for the period, up from 17.2 per cent a month earlier and beating an expected rate of 11.3 per cent.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The study relied on a dataset of hundreds of millions of secret answers and millions of account recovery requests.
  • 联合办公迎来转折点 国内公司或成市场新一轮需求高峰
  • 衷心祝福来年快乐、幸运!
  • 2月百城住宅均价环比涨幅持续收窄
  • 家装行业成本全面增长 揭开“涨价”背后因素
  • It seems that Christmas time is here once again, and it is time again to bring in the New Year. We wish the merriest of Christmas to you and your loved ones, and we wish you happiness and prosperity in the year ahead.又该迎接新的一年了。我们向你及你的亲人们致以最美好的祝福,愿你在新的一年里事业兴旺,幸福美满!
    10月中国出口同比下降6.9%,较上月3.7%的降幅有所恶化。疲弱的全球需求和中国成本上涨导致过去10年期间从中国大量流向世界的廉价商品减少。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 房产企业“金九”不再“金”:增收不增利现象凸显, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

恒指发公告:小米将在7月23日纳入恒生综合指数

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

房地产市场趋稳 去库存成效明显

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • This figure marks the highest rate of growth since 2011. As the total annual box office in China five years ago was only 10 billion yuan.
    Care about them, but don't let on mkay?
  • Wang studied computer programming while growing up in China. After college, she hoped to move to the U.S. to start her career. The next year, the Chinese Students Protection Act was passed and Wang got her master's in computer science at University of Houston. She worked at several Silicon Valley startups (and launched her own, iBizWomen.com) until September 11, 2001. The attack inspired her to create Binary Group, a technology consulting company that works with the Federal Government. Over the past 16 years, Binary has helped its clients save piles of money -- like the Army 20th Support Command, which cut $60 million over five years for its satellite communication bandwidth requirements.
    中国房价在今年初曾以9.6%的同比增速快速上涨,但此后随着经济放缓以及很多中等规模城市遭遇房产供应过剩,房价一直在下跌。
    Rankings for Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain fell dramatically because of the impact of the eurozone crisis, while Egypt, Myanmar and Saudi Arabia registered large falls in the wake of recent political and civil turmoil.
    本次也是QS世界大学学科排名的第六版,以破纪录的42个学科使其成为有史以来规模最大的一次排名。QS机构表示,本次排名结果来自于全球最顶尖的76798名权威学术专家、44426家雇主的综合评价,以及对全球最大文摘数据库Scopus中2850万学术文献及1亿1300万引用数据的分析。
    达成一个全球性气候协议的下一次大尝试,将是在来自世界各地的谈判代表今年12月聚集巴黎的时候。气候变化问题的政治活动人士上周五不失时机地引用2014年的温度记录为证,表明采取强有力行动的必要性。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 共享住宿监管 不应违背“包容审慎”原则
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 布局者众 智能家居千亿市场开启

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

7. 《出局:禁止接触》(Out 1: Noli Me Tangere),导演:雅克·里维特(Jacques Rivette)。
Collins grew up in rural, apartheid-era South Africa in the 1970s. Her childhood inspired her to focus on empowering women living below the poverty line through grassroots efforts. The Wonderbag, which was inspired by watching her grandmother cook with cushions, uses heat retention technology to cook food for 8-12 hours without the need for additional fuel. Collins witnessed the benefits African women received from using Wonderbags, reducing the amount of time they spent collecting firewood. For every bag sold, another is donated to a household in Africa, and in the past four years, the Wonderbags have found themselves in 600,000 African homes. Collins has launched the Wonderbag in the U.S. on Amazon, and hopes to sell the products via other retailers by 2014.
"It became an issue about so many things, such as the environment, energy, workplace disasters and the role of big government. It became a lightning rodfor peoples' anxieties," she explained.
我们也不希望打贸易战。我们坚持人民币汇率形成机制的改革,保持了人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。
这位当选总统承诺废除贸易协议:如果这些贸易协议被修订,可能会对美国大宗商品的进口和出口造成广泛影响。
1. Hokkaido, Japan-Though known primarily to the outside world for its ski resorts and powdery snow, Hokkaido's year-round beauty might soon become a more familiar sight to foreign visitors. The new bullet-train service from Tokyo should help.
The big question is what oil prices will do in 2015. Oil prices are unsustainably low right now – many high-cost oil producers and oil-producing regions are currently operating in the red. That may work in the short-term, but over the medium and long-term, companies will be forced out of the market, precipitating a price rise. The big question is when they will rise, and by how much.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • In a closely fought debate about the six shortlisted titles, one judge described Mr Ford’s book as “a hard-headed and all-encompassing” analysis of the problem. Lionel Barber, FT editor and chair of the judging panel, called The Rise of the Robots “a tightly written and deeply researched addition to the public policy debate”.
  • 香港房价连续17周创新高 成交量大幅回落
  • 在被问及欧洲央行会不会采取更多行动时,朗伯德街研究(Lombard Street Research)首席欧洲经济学家达里奥·铂金斯(Dario Perkins)表示:“我不这么认为——除非全球整体经济出了问题。”
    高效老板和经理们趋向于:
  • 中国木地板行业为何遭遇知识产权壁垒?
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 越南声称来自中国的鸡肉、鲟鱼和果蔬降低了当地产品的市场价位,而他们却将严重过期的不法产品运至中国,甚至还形成了黑市。
    能够再次主持奥斯卡我感到非常激动和荣幸。你知道有句老话:第三次总是幸运的。
  • 单词tunnel 联想记忆:
    除了这些理论之外,还有传统经济学家用来误导美国的坏的统计数据:最恶劣的是GDP,它在衡量美国长期增长的时候是一个狭窄的、误导人的指标。其次,我们对短期数据(每日收盘情况、季度业绩、年度回报等)的执迷正在阻碍美国的长远增长。
  • 我们曾经都经历过:老板们和经理们让我们的生活越来越糟糕,不能管理好一堆文件,不理整个团队的员工。我之前写过一篇文章“不明智老板的特点”,在那篇文章里,一位考虑周到的评论者列出了他对如何做一个明智的老板的一些点评。
    n. 污染,污染物
  • [k?'m?:l]
    安哥拉,津巴布韦,和阿尔巴尼亚的排名在所有国家中上升幅度最大。“从广度和深度上来讲,拉丁美洲,加勒比地区,以及撒哈拉以南非洲等地域的国家,人民幸福感提高比较大。腐败的减少也是提高幸福感的一个很重要的原因。”
    n. 所有权
  • adj. 平的,与飞机有关的
    在2017年FT对全球95个管理学硕士项目的排行中,虽然瑞士圣加仑大学(University of St Gallen)继续蝉联冠军,但法国和英国商学院分别以24个和18个项目入围成为中坚力量。超过一半的英国商学院排名上升,而只有一家法国商学院排名上升。三分之一的英国商学院排名上升5位,相比之下,三分之二的法国商学院排名下降5位或更多。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 中国建材行业一周大事记(12.28-12.31) shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

处理废弃家具将收费?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

史上最严限产:10月起水泥、钢铁、建材全停产!

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

《2018年三季度家庭资产指数报告》发布 这些细节你感受到了吗

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

中介电商矛盾全面爆发 二手房中介突围“混战”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 朱尔斯皮耶里
  • 中国建材品牌化赢得新定位 不畏洗牌保持进取

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 一位著名神经学家的遗作引发的争议
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • His mother says he is a scapegoat. 'This company is in the process of attempting to sue a 14-year-old child,' she wrote in the letter which has been shared online.
    3、美酒佳人。 邦德走到哪里喝到哪里,美酒的确能帮他俘获佳人。喜欢喝一杯的人最容易在第一次约会时就抱得美人归。
    日前,美国民主党候选人希拉里·克林顿承诺,如果她在总统竞选中获胜,那么她的内阁将有半数成员是女性。
  • 在弗丽达·詹尼尼(Frida Giannini)为古驰(Gucci)设计的很多时装秀上都可以看到这种理念,包括2014年秋冬的台布渐变色和A字皮裙;2013年春夏的粉色长款衬衫和褶饰女主人连衣裙;2009年春夏的披头士风格鲜艳裤套装和宽松束腰长裙。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • intelligence
  • 扩增近80万平方米 海口建材市场阔步盼“见财”
  • More than 40 percent of consumer goods exported to China last year through e-commerce platforms fell short of standards, China's top quality watchdog said.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 南京推规模最大共有产权房供应 单价仅万元
  • Household substance abuse
  • 五种红木受限价格将上涨 “替代品”或再次蹿红
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

环保施压玻璃行业 发展艰辛酝酿变局

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 多机构预测: 5月CPI 同比微升到2.6%至2.7%
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 津提升公租房智能化管理运营 实行“一卡通”
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

4. Stop eating, gotta get those cheekbone sharp enough to cut butter.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Three stricts and three honests: Be strict in morals, power and disciplining oneself; be honest in decisions, business and behavior
Popular songs from 2012:”Di Da” (Kan Kan and Li Chen) and “You Exist In My Song”(Qu Wanting and Du Chun)
在电视剧《欲望都市》里,米兰达和嘉莉常去布里克街401号的木兰烘焙坊。剧集播出以后,成群结队的人前去对那些纸杯蛋糕一探究竟。没有谁能像凯莉·布拉德肖那样带来一股纸杯蛋糕热。木兰烘焙坊也因此销量大增,顾客盈门。事实上,他们因为大受欢迎而不得不聘请了一位类似"保安"的工作人员。不同于一般的俱乐部保安,这位保安非常友好,并且相当注重蛋糕的细节。
万事达公司表示,其数据反映出世界主要大城市的互联性,并追踪了商务和休闲飞机乘客的消费方式。
综合考虑,这些事实与战略规划凸显了中国航天工业的认知——为了成为有竞争力的全球飞机制造商,中国需要拓宽行业的广度与深度。在他们掌握了价值链的两端——飞机设计与集成组装后,中国意识到长期处于价值链中游的组装和子系统地位将摧毁他们的航空业。这就是为什么中国雄心勃勃地与波音、空客等飞机制造商以及美国通用电气公司、劳斯莱斯等发动制造商竞争,形式前所未有地激烈。
Scott Brooks gets leeway as he learns his roster, and injuries continue to play too big a role. But I just can't fathom why this team is so much worse than the playoff team from a couple years back. The other piece is that it's unlikely the Wizards can conceivably be bad enough to get a top-five pick.
Peace and love for you at New Year from all your students.
单词receptive 联想记忆:
另外一件性玩具则显然属于中国皇室。
在英国,今年可能是大型咨询公司正式进入法律市场的一年吗?其他的“另类业务结构”——或者说按照“乐购法”(Tesco law)成立的律所——将通过提供固定费用服务、把业务外包给松散的律师网络,或者推出法律聊天机器人提供即时而实惠的建议,而终于立足消费者市场吗?为了普通公民的利益,得有人突破这个领域。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

楼市新政首月:供需猛增 重点城市库存压力大

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 8. 斯特吉尔·辛普森(Sturgill Simpson),《乡村音乐的大现代之声》(Matamodern Sound in Country Music),High Top Mountain。一支极为聪敏的乐队做出复古的改革:乡村乐中曾经发生过这样的事。但在斯特吉尔·辛普森突破性的第二张专辑中,他把这一点变成了可适应环境的标志,就建立在他那动人而通透的男中音之上。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • The China International Robot Industry Summit, held on Tuesday in Shanghai, said the sales and growth rate of industrial robots hit records in 2017. Among industrial robots, 37,825 were domestically manufactured, up 29.8% year-on-year.
  • 工程院院士:非合格建材污染释放可达几十年 “达标”也非绝对安全
  • 共管公寓和合作公寓一直在严令整顿,编写警告备忘录,对违规居民罚款。对于租房者来说,打破规则就可能会危及租约。共管公寓正在加强安保措施,要求门卫仔细观察来访者,同时要求居民为来访的客人签署授权表格。这类操作还引起了保险界的关注。
  • 中国建材行业一周大事记(4.4-4.8)
  • urban

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 单品赢利能力太弱 家居企业招商成问题
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Summly的一个早期版本──Trimit,于2011年7月出现在了苹果app store“新品推荐”栏目中。正是在这里,它被极具影响力的硅谷《科技博客》(TechCrunch)所关注,并迅速引起了李嘉诚的投资集团的注意。当达洛伊西奥收到李嘉诚的维港投资(Horizons Ventures)发来的电子邮件时,他只有15岁,并且基本没让什么人知道他所做的事情。在那之前,他从未与科技领域内的任何人物见过面,而他在Trimit的登记信息中也只是粗略形容自己是“伦敦的一家科技公司”。仅靠这一信息,谁也不会想到这家公司的管理和技术团队──事实上,它的全部职员──竟然是住在郊区卧室里的一个连车都不能开的小孩。
  • More recently, however, General Motors made a self-driving car in 1958 that adjusted its steering wheel based on the alternating currents given off by a wire placed inside the road. While the vehicle did actually drive itself, it does not qualify as the first autonomous vehicle because it depended on wires placed inside the ground. The world's first autonomous vehicle was made by S. Tsugawa and several of his colleagues at Japan's Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. However, German engineer Ernst Dickinson is regarded as the pioneer of the autonomous car. In 1987, he developed the VaMoRs which was capable of traveling more than 90 kilometers per hour (55 mph) for about 20 kilometers (12 mi). Seven years later, he made the VaMP, which could recognize road signs, know its own position in a lane, detect other vehicles, and even decide when to change lanes. And a year after that, he and his team made another autonomous vehicle which traveled from Germany to Denmark. The vehicle had a maximum speed of 180 kilometers per hour (111 mph) and was controlled by a human for about 5 percent of the journey.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

产品质量提升列入国家行动 中国制造需工匠精神

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