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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

互联网已经让世界变成了平面,Facebook让我们大家团结起来,组成一个大家庭。我们的祖父那一辈人是地区的传承者,我们这代人是国家的传承者,而你们则是世界的传承者。你现在和任何人的联系只有4.74个人的距离,到达全球任何有人居住的角落平均只需要两天时间。你可以踏上旅途。无论是非洲、欧洲、印度、中国还是巴西,前往那些能让你学到最多东西的地方,拥抱那个可以教给你最多东西的国度。

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Xi Jinping and other leadershave made it clear that China is willing to accept a slower growth pace if thiswill allow for a more sustainable, consumer-driven expansion of its economy.Some prognosticators are quick to conclude that China’s economy will soonsignificantly slow down, especially because China’s economy has sputteredfollowing prior instances when the nation’s leaders have effected suchfundamental economic reforms (such as in 1978 and 1993).
stylish
Here are the 10 bogies, drones targeting markets, stocks, bonds and the, global economy:

根据普京最近的一次收入申报,2015年他总计收入大约为890万卢布(约合13.7万美元)。
n. 权力,权威,职权,官方,当局
Ellen DeGeneres

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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Martha Cherry took a cigarette out of her mouth, murmured, "I've been there," and resumed smoking. Marc was in shock (which, let's face it, is a pretty healthy response when you realize your own mother may or may not have had thoughts of murdering you while you bathed). He realized for the first time how desperate and lonely it could be to be a housewife. He realized then and there that he was upon a very good idea for a TV show. This conversation was the birth of Desperate Housewives.
Meanwhile producer prices fell 4.9 per cent year-on-year in February, as expected, compared to a 5.3 per cent fall in January. The drop was the smallest in eight months.
May the New Year bring many good things and rich blessings to you and all those you love!

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

不过,10月份社会消费品零售总额增速放缓至10%,低于经济学家的预期。经济学家曾预期,10月份的增速将与9月份一致,同为10.7%。
Define yourself
The surviving cat, since named Trooper, has recovered and found a new home.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 谎言4:太感谢了!我很喜欢!说谎原因:告诉别人他们送的礼物一团糟会让我看起来像是冷血的混蛋。
  • 辉县美涂士千人团购会掀春季装修狂潮
  • Airlines with operations based west of the Rockies boast the fewest flights that arrive late during the holidays, according to data compiled for Forbes.com by FlightAware.
  • 宜家难抵网络蛋糕诱惑 下半年推出网购
  • 网站发布房源信息还是“不老实”网站房源信息依旧乱象丛生
  • remembrance
    据《太阳报》报道,根据这一搜索引擎,2012欧洲杯打败了奥运门票,成为今年英国最热门的网络搜索关键词。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 智库机构评深圳为年度中国最佳表现城市 重庆、天津紧随其后, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

税延养老一年试点将满 推广遇难题业界开九大处方

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

焦点传统家居卖场电商发展的三大轨迹

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 7月,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)宣布发现了一颗类地行星,激发了中国人的想象。
    以下是我们精选的本届科隆游戏展最值得关注的新游戏。
  • 5. Emma Stone
    根据人社部的一份报告显示,雇主们在第一季度通过公共就业服务机构共招募了520万名职工,这一数字同比去年减少了229000人,也就是下降了百分之4.5。
    精准扶贫脱贫
    Mass entrepreneurship and innovation
    Microsoft Corp., Toyota Motor Corp., IBM Corp., Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Amazon.com Inc., Mercedes-Benz and General Electric Co. were also on the Top 10 list, according to Interbrand's 2016 Best Global Brands report.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家居行业寡头时代来临 中小卖场冷清离场
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 穆迪发布报告预测:中国房地产行业将稳步复苏

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

你的消费者信任你吗?他们知道你都拿他们的个人信息干嘛去了吗?你这么做他们高兴吗?这不仅仅是美国国家安全局、微软和谷歌的问题。谷歌眼镜也不会是唯一一个引发争论的产品。如果你和你的顾客之间有足够的信任,这会降低你做生意的成本;反之,那些不重视与合伙人、供应商和消费者建立信任关系的企业则会为之所累。
But the struggle for white identity is not just a political problem; it is about the “deep story” of feeling stuck while others move forward.
阿曼达评价说:“十分精彩的演出,你们明星范十足,一定能赢得这场比赛。”
['benifit]
爆破公司总指挥贾永胜告诉中国国营电视台CCTV说:像这样在市中心的大规模爆破任务,不但要保证爆破结果(精确),还要控制爆破产生的不良影响。
Belgium
As a measure of that fall, 10 works have sold at auction for more than $100 million since 2004, and all of them were made by modern or contemporary artists in the past 120 years. Older paintings have seen their value, in relative terms, level off or decline. The trend was plain to see in recent weeks, as London’s auction houses tried to find buyers for their latest tranche of old masters. As has been the case in recent years, there were few works by major names.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • The immediacy for a larger-screen iPhone comes partially from the Asian market where Samsung’s phablets have made significant inroads. Assuming that Apple’s agreement with China Mobile includes these upcoming products, the pricing adjustments that normally occur with new iPhones could make the iPhone 5C significantly more affordable and attractive to the Chinese market. This would begin to make sense of the 5C, which so far seems to be a sales disappointment for Apple. Perhaps the important thing about the 5C is that it is not the 5S, so that down the road it can be discounted without putting price pressure on Apple’s flagship.
  • 北京朝阳将疏解34家商品交易市场
  • Format: After a one-week orientation, classes are held on alternating weekends on Fridays and Saturdays, with accommodations provided on Friday nights. Final term sessions are held on campus for two weeks with the remainder of the term completed online.
    Across all European schools, the average salary of alumni three years after graduation ranges from $143,000 for executive MBA graduates to $54,000 for MiM graduates. MBA graduates earned on average $123,000. Spanish and German MiM graduates enjoyed the highest salary three years after graduation, both $70,000 on average. French MBA graduates and Swiss EMBA graduates top their salary scale, with average salaries of $137,000 and $166,000 respectively.
  • (两会受权发布)李克强说,继续创新和完善宏观调控,确保经济运行在合理区间
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 这些项目一般是为平均年龄22岁的学员设计的。
    The Colombian singer, songwriter, dancer, record producer, choreographer, and model – Shakira stands 10th on the world's most beautiful women of 2015 list. She is listed as most powerful woman in the world by Forbes, and most popular dancer by wonders list. As of July 2014, She has become the first person to reach 100 million followers on Facebook.
  • 'Her,' which was written and directed by Spike Jonze, takes romance into the virtual realm, and its hero on a gently crazed journey of genuine passion. Joaquin Phoenix is the poignantly lonely guy who falls in love with his smartphone's new operating system. The basic conceit is a fragile one, but it's beautifully and bravely developed, as well as elegantly photographed by Hoyte Van Hoytema, with perfectly calibrated performances by Mr. Phoenix, Amy Adams and Scarlett Johansson, who is that system's voice and soul.
    7. Political wars guarantee intense volatility through 2014-2016 elections
  • [.sju:p?'vin]
    苹果公司和中国移动之间的协议尘埃落定之后,有关苹果下一款重大产品发布的供应链传言又开始浮现。Digitimes报道称,据“上游供应链的消息”,苹果公司正酝酿在明年5月发布一款5英寸屏幕的iPhone 6“平板手机”,在明年10月发布一款大尺寸平板电脑。
  • Sweden’s foreign minister, Margot Wallstrom, a proponent of a “feminist foreign policy,” opened up to Ellen Barry about her abuse at the hands of an old boyfriend when she was a young woman, something she had never said publicly before.
    'For what is really exceptional, not seen on the market, there are really clients looking for such investments,'
    Everyone was hugely cheered that global greenhouse gas emissions were flat between 2014 and 2016, even though recorded global growth was OK. The trouble is that this wasn’t the improvement in global economic efficiency everyone celebrated, but just a slowdown in northern China. As this part of the world recovered its economic mojo in 2017, carbon dioxide levels began to rise again.
  • 科学家周日表示,2013年,全球温室气体排放量增加了2.3%,达到历史新高。这个最新迹象表明,在控制全球变暖方面,国际社会的努力仍远远不够。
    But nearly two-thirds (65 percent) of white evangelical Protestants say they think the storms are evidence of the "end times" as predicted by the Bible.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 三星死磕苹果谷歌 推出智能家居入门套件 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

智能家居崛起:行业急需建立统一标准

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

十年新房价格涨281% 投资客买房为何空置不出租

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

浙江省启动国土空间规划编制 2020年全面完成市县级规划编制

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

银行信用卡用于房地产类的商户交易再降限额

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Recipient: Lindsay Lohan
  • In a statement given to the website Kotaku, Epic Games said the lawsuit was a result of Mr Rogers "filing a DMCA counterclaim to a takedown notice on a YouTube video that exposed and promoted Fortnite Battle Royale cheats and exploits."
  • 超半数住宅库存下降 二三线新增供应小于成交量

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Besides exploring the overall ranking, prospective international students can narrow their search by browsing regional and country rankings. These rankings were determined solely by how schools performed in the overall list.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 他说,杂志和作者在这起最近发生的丑闻中都有不可推卸的责任,声明中还说,《肿瘤生物学》在2015年就已经因同行评议过程存在类似问题而撤销一些论文。
    根据QS的这一排名,使得中国成为入选全球400强学校第二多的国家,仅次于有164所大学的学科入选全球400强的美国。英国排名第3,有78所大学进入榜单。
    “这可是短期内的大幅跃升:当我还是内政部长时仅有30个案例,今天则是1400。”
  • Remedy: The tricky aspect of this regret is that it’s typically rooted in hindsight. Only after you’ve left the job and have moved on to something better, do you start beating yourself up for not making the leap sooner, even if it hadn’t been practical or possible. What you can do is to identify the factors that kept you in your former position as red flags to be aware of in the future and work to line up supports that will allow you to more quickly capitalize on other opportunities as they may present themselves. This could include reviewing and updating your resume with new accomplishments on a monthly or quarterly basis, keeping your LinkedIn account current, building up a contingency fund to allow you to feel less tethered to your current pay check and staying in the loop on industry news and gossip to be aware of where your skills and experience could be of value.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • transport(n /v 运输;狂喜),trans转移,port搬运
  • 牛窝网家具电商折戟
  • The very best bosses I’ve seen are passionate about their work; they live and breathe their jobs and strive to do the best work possible. Yet at the same time, they have lives outside of work. They understand the need to balance family and work or play and work. And they set a good example of how to do that for their employees。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 房价2016怎么走?揭秘专家对中国楼市的8点共识
  • Household substance abuse
  • 个人房贷增速回落 公司贷接棒或成新宠儿
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

质检总局将重点提升家居等10种产品质量

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 自建渠道并非易事 木门企业该从何处着手?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 盼盼院士工作站及环境建材检测中心在营成立
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

今年9月,该指数曾跌至48这个创纪录低点,10月份该读数则为49.9。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Whatever happened to ‘Never complain; never explain' – the unofficial motto of the House of Windsor?
The hunt for his body began in earnest in 2012 when archaeologists working on historical accounts and geographical clues started to dig beneath the municipal carpark on the spot where Greyfriars was, and found the skeleton.
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['serim?ni]
“有个女员工打包好自己的东西就一言不发地走了。”
The Fed last month laid out a timetable to slow the pace of its bond purchases throughout the year. The central bank, which had been soaking up $85 billion a month in Treasurys and mortgage-backed securities since late 2012, plans to reduce the pace of purchases by $10 billion at each meeting until it is no longer buying bonds at year-end.
成功突破玻璃天花板
ac+cur关心+ate→一再关心,弄精确为止→准确的,精确的
而在进口一侧,不论以人民币还是美元计,情况都愈发糟糕。
全国31个省(区、市)1767所高校43万多名学生接受了调查。89.2%的受访者曾考虑过创业,18.2%的受访者称有强烈的创业意向。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

个税"减负"或影响中小城市楼市 迎来新一轮需求热潮

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Yes. Mrs May lost most of her authority with the bungled snap election. But the past few months have been kinder. Sealing a Brexit divorce deal has ensured short-term job security. So until Brexit is formally complete in 2019, or an appealing alternative emerges, the Conservative party will keep her where she is. Remainers and Leavers alike wish to avoid a civil war that would be sparked by moving against her. What was thought to be an unsustainable position is proving surprisingly sustainable.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 不过,漫长的收缩期也符合正在放缓的中国经济的总体趋势。
  • 深圳南山:近两周有三盘入市
  • Supporting Actress in a Mini-Series or Movie: Regina King, “American Crime”
  • 上海家居流通、网络零售领域将建市场信用平台
  • spoon

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • “引才引智”更要“用人留人”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 没有什么事情能像太阳躲在月亮后面那样,把人们聚集在一起。
  • 的确,价格不是一切。但即使是看空者也同意:一切都有价格。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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