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业内报告称:中国一二线城市住宅地价明显上涨

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 北京上海整顿风声鹤唳 商办物业加速“跑量” (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

未签订书面协议的“借名买房”该如何认定

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Together, the world's 10 highest-paid models banked a cumulative $109.5 million between June 1, 2016, and June 1, 2017, before taxes and fees.
到底有哪些行业急需专业人才?说起这个问题,你可能怎么也不会想到“供应链管理”:这是一项复杂的幕后工作,负责将货物从甲地运到乙地,不仅要准时,还不能超支。
Artificial pancreas, however, knock insulin into your body automatically. The device looks much like a regular insulin pump, which slips you insulin continuously through your skin, but this one monitors your blood sugar at all times and adjusts itself accordingly. So even when the wearer sleeps, there's no danger of falling into shock if their sugar drops too low.
BABYLON (Sundance, Thursday) James Nesbitt, recently seen as the obsessed father of a long-vanished child in “The Missing,” shows up here in a very different role: as a calculating old-school police commissioner who hires an American public-relations expert (Brit Marling) to update the image of Scotland Yard. Danny Boyle (“Slumdog Millionaire”) created this satirical drama, which bears some resemblance to Armando Iannucci’s political comedy film “In the Loop.”
单词demographic 联想记忆:
第一种是把亚洲视作一个被证明为排斥快速发展的市场,在起飞之前需要重大结构和监管改变。第二种是看到突然出现上行惊喜的可能性。
本麦克兰纳汗(Ben McLannahan)是美国银行业编辑

故事发生在《海底总动员》第一部结束的一年后,多莉展开了一场全新的海底冒险:寻找自己的父母。在这部史诗巨制中,多莉沿加利福尼亚海岸的冒险之旅,得到了尼莫和马林的鼎力相助。 故事中也将迎来一批全新的角色。
Some hits have gone so far over the top they should be winded, yet instead keep on puffing gusts of hot air, including “Downton Abbey,” “Scandal” and “Revenge.” A new addition on ABC, “How to Get Away With Murder” was a fun substitute, a lurid nighttime soap opera about lawbreaking defense lawyers — “Law & Disorder.”
Female founders in Silicon Valley will raise more money next year, as sexual harassment scandals have forced investors to rethink their habit of backing ventures founded by mainly young, white men. Some start-ups founded by men pursued by rumours of unsavoury pasts will not get funding, even if they are a good investment proposition.
“What Happened, Miss Simone?” (Liz Garbus)
The TV drama is not based on a novel but the story of a real businesswoman Zhou Ying. Born in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Zhou was the richest female entrepreneur in Shaanxi province at that time.

Footnotes

  • 水性硅藻泥湖南地方标准出台 首提硅藻泥配比不低于20%
  • 支持:该片在威尼斯电影节首映后,获得观众喝彩。

vt. 安慰,使
bacteria
豆瓣网友“Shiweitian”表示:“为什么电视剧里的奴隶们都穿着白色衣服,看上去和仙女一样?还有,她们跑的比马还快,这合理吗?”
据国家统计局上周三发布的调查显示,去年,我国人口总数有所增长,且男女性别比例及国民受教育程度均有所改善。
吕特在周一晚间的辩论中重申,他不会与维尔德斯所属的政党组建联合政府,他甚至还表示不可能组建一个依赖这个反移民政党支持的政府。吕特表示:“我不会再次与这样的政党合作。”在2010年选举之后,吕特组建的首个少数派政府受到自由党的支持。
The emissions growth last year was a bit slower than the average growth rate of 2.5 percent over the past decade, and much of the dip was caused by an economic slowdown in China, which is the world's single largest source of emissions. It may take an additional year or two to know if China has turned a corner toward slower emissions growth, or if the runaway pace of recent years will resume.

北京房价连续7月下跌 一线城市房价无反弹迹象

References

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