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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

网上零售对北京市社会消费品零售额的贡献率达到82.6%。网上零售也促使一些传统商店开展线上销售,北京77家老字号中的13家开展了网上零售业务,商品涉及小吃、鞋等。

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综合考虑,这些事实与战略规划凸显了中国航天工业的认知——为了成为有竞争力的全球飞机制造商,中国需要拓宽行业的广度与深度。在他们掌握了价值链的两端——飞机设计与集成组装后,中国意识到长期处于价值链中游的组装和子系统地位将摧毁他们的航空业。这就是为什么中国雄心勃勃地与波音、空客等飞机制造商以及美国通用电气公司、劳斯莱斯等发动制造商竞争,形式前所未有地激烈。
……带着狗来面试。
Among them, IT/Internet/telecommunications/electronics industries absorb nearly 30% 2016 graduates for the rapid development.

除此之外,美国还将举行更为传统的庄重纪念活动,其中包括奥巴马总统在与美国首都华盛顿一河之隔的阿灵顿国家公墓向无名战士墓敬献花圈。
“The worker threw a brick through the window with the words ‘I quit’ written on it.”
Set in 1950's London, Reynolds Woodcock is a renowned dressmaker whose fastidious life is disrupted by a young, strong-willed woman, Alma, who becomes his muse and lover.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

不动产登记出台 或致部分人大批量抛售房产

A Method to the Madness
Employees of state-owned firms also expressed more satisfaction with their bonuses than those at private companies – and little wonder, as the average payout at the former was Rmb17,318, or about Rmb6,000 more than what their private-sector counterparts could expect.
30岁的阿什莉·格林汉姆是首位跻身收入榜单的大码模特,她通过自己的内衣和泳衣品牌代言合同赚得550万美元,排在榜单的第十位。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

7.Morocco
事实上,贷款给Seppenwolde的那些机构一个荷兰盾都没损失。他们在几周内就清空了全部的东印度股票,收回了所有贷款。
enter在中间+tain拿住+ment→在[工作]中间拿→娱乐,款待

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • I get that Frank Vogel is experimenting to find a winning rotation, but this roster is so unbalanced and the best prospects aren't being put in great positions.
  • 指数午后拉高创指涨逾3% 通信、畜牧领涨板块
  • 理查三世是金雀花王朝的最后一位国君,都铎王朝的继任者将其塑造成了不惜一切代价追求权力的无恶不作的暴君,还称他谋杀了他的两个侄子-也就是“塔中王子”-来保住王位。
  • 北京:公租房人脸识别系统正式上线
  • 首单民企长租公寓储架式权益类房地产投资信托基金在上交所挂牌
  • But yeah, of course they should tank. And so should the Kings. Again. And the Heat. And the Magic. These are mediocre teams, at best, without high upsides even in the most optimistic projections.
    “这可以归结为3个问题:怎样推动平台不断升级,怎样继续强化团队,怎样打造与合作伙伴的一系列联盟,以加速自身成长?”凯斯表示。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 别被“定制”吓跑 家具“变脸”不是难题, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

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Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

住房供求总体偏松 供求关系将进入新阶段

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Collins grew up in rural, apartheid-era South Africa in the 1970s. Her childhood inspired her to focus on empowering women living below the poverty line through grassroots efforts. The Wonderbag, which was inspired by watching her grandmother cook with cushions, uses heat retention technology to cook food for 8-12 hours without the need for additional fuel. Collins witnessed the benefits African women received from using Wonderbags, reducing the amount of time they spent collecting firewood. For every bag sold, another is donated to a household in Africa, and in the past four years, the Wonderbags have found themselves in 600,000 African homes. Collins has launched the Wonderbag in the U.S. on Amazon, and hopes to sell the products via other retailers by 2014.
    brace
  • 2016年的年度色彩与以往不同,它是两种颜色的组合:粉水晶(Rose Quartz,一种矿物粉色)和宁静蓝天(Serenity,一种淡蓝色)。在该公司的网站上,这两种颜色浑然融为一体,看不清它们的界线。
    10.Meditate
    budget
    对于像费城、凤凰城和布鲁克林这样的烂队而言,另一个问题在于他们很难笼络到好的球队拼图。
    commission

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 南京河西4楼盘新领796套房源销许
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 被无罪释放7个月后 济南地产商被扣的财物为何难返还?

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

4. 马克·特纳四重奏(Mark Turner Quartet),《天堂里的车床》(Lathe of Heaven), ECM。这是次中音萨克斯手马克·特纳13年来第一次以领队身份推出专辑,他喜欢同小号手阿维沙伊·科恩(Avishai Cohen)奏出流畅的互动,在后波普规范中发现全新意义。他的作曲中有纯粹的神秘,由乔伊·马丁(Joe Martin)担任贝斯手,马库斯·基尔默(Marcus Gilmore)担任鼓手的节奏组亦是一丝不苟。
In a statement given to the website Kotaku, Epic Games said the lawsuit was a result of Mr Rogers "filing a DMCA counterclaim to a takedown notice on a YouTube video that exposed and promoted Fortnite Battle Royale cheats and exploits."
科技、电信企业与一些快餐集团的品牌价值均出现增长,后者包括星巴克(BrandZ将它列入这一分类)和麦当劳(McDonald's),麦当劳的品牌价值增长9%,尽管排名没有变化。
Slow growth around the world won't hurt the U.S. all that much. American exports might flatten out or even dip, but that would be offset by lower imports of petroleum because of sinking oil prices. So the trade deficit is unlikely to get further out of whack.
Chinese property magnate Wang Jianlin has defended his crown as the country's richest man, according to the annual Hurun rich list, fending off Alibaba Group Holding Ltd (BABA.N) founder Jack Ma and new players on the block like Baoneng's Yao Zhenhua.
这些弊端是很现实的,但是也有很多方法来回避它们。比如说,你可以利用你的谋生工作向雇主展示你努力工作的诚意。并且你也可以在工作之余继续找其他的好工作。
单词encourage 联想记忆:

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • In short, some New Yorkers dislike their neighbors almost as much as they do their landlords. Co-op and condominium boards beware: You do not fare much better.
  • 实木家具逆势增长 传统与现代相结合的家具备受推崇
  • adj. 傲慢的,自大的
    当时的杜兰特身高6尺9寸,体重只有185磅,我很惊讶在高中赛打到一半时他没有被撞坏。幸运的是,杜兰特不靠在大前锋位置上力量抗衡赚钱,他主要依赖他拿手的急停跳投。
  • 疯狂的南京楼市:能买到房子就像中了彩票一样
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • As a result of the country’s strict policies, some of the underwear brand's most famous models are unable to appear in its biggest event of the year with Gigi Hadid announcing that she won’t be attending on Twitter last week.
    美与进化
  • 2. 邻客音(LinkedIn)。品牌喜爱度:47%/排名:309
    在本届戛纳电影节上,女性电影制作人以及相关女性话题曾广受关注成为宣传主题。28年来,戛纳首次以女导演拍摄的电影拉开序幕,伊莎贝拉?罗西里尼(Isabella Rossellini)成为“一种关注”单元评审团主席,莎尔玛?海雅克(Salma Hayek)主持讨论会高调探讨女性角色在电影中的意义。可以讨论的话题有许多,但是真的有何改变吗?数字似乎更能说明问题,主竞赛单元的19部入围作品仅有2部来自女性导演。而后发生的“高跟鞋门”,更有.....面对外界对于影展涉嫌性别歧视的负面消息,艺术总监蒂埃里?弗雷莫(Thierry Frémaux)一点儿反应都没。他只是说,戛纳电影节的举办有着及其不公平的高标准,参展影片不能申请其他诸如威尼斯或柏林电影节。这难道是建议人们去“攻击奥斯卡”?
  • But I know your generation, unlike any other generation in the past, is most eager to look at life differently. So as you leave school, I offer you a list of some obvious-yet-vastly-ignored truths that may help you look at life a little differently than just a series of paychecks:
    这里并不是要给特斯拉浇一瓢冷水。它已经证明自己具有生产一款复杂、先进且外观诱人的产品的能力。但无论是特斯拉自己的内部预测,还是投资人对其股票的追捧,都基于同样一个预期,那就是特斯拉未来依然会延续最近的大热势头。这是一种危险的假设,原因如下:
  • mortgage
    单词benefit 联想记忆:
    8. Illiteracy
  • Chicago-based rival AT Kearney is also preparing for a change at the top, with a vote to replace Johan Aurik, who has already served the maximum two terms as managing partner, due to take place in the first quarter of 2018. His replacement will be expected to focus on how to pull AT Kearney out of the ranks of mid-sized players.
    此外,华为在2016年最后一季度第一次实现了2位数的全球市场占有率。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 坐飞机要多花钱了!10月5日起国内航班燃油附加费将上涨 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

中国建材行业一周大事记(12.14-12.18)

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

2014厨电行业新兴私人定制 品牌家电供不应求

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

CSIL报告:未来全球家具逐年呈稳步增长

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

房地产冰火两重天 警惕要去库存也要防“泡沫”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 房价猛涨房东反悔 她一招拿回定金还赚20万

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • ‘Faultless performance, you are stunning and you could win this competition,’ Amanda said.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 'It surprised me, but it's a good sign for Tencent getting abroad, because in particular WeChat is a combination of WhatsApp and Instagram, so it's a unique value proposition that is probably pretty good for emerging market consumers,' he said.
    在纽约举办了多次其标志性的时装秀之后,内衣品牌维多利亚的秘密又来到伦敦、巴黎、戛纳和洛杉矶举办维密秀,而在2017年,该全球女士内衣行业巨头来到了上海。
    adj. 不稳定的,易变的
  • 科学家们在赋予人体器官原本能力方面投入很深,但是为何要仅限于此呢?

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Harvard Business School, London Business School (LBS) and MIT Sloan School of Management, three of the MBA ranking’s longstanding heavyweights, all lost ground to their competitors. Harvard drops two places to fourth, the first time in nine years that the Boston school has been outside the top three. London Business School falls three places to sixth, its lowest position in 14 years. MIT Sloan School of Management falls to 13th place, the first time in 10 years that it has been outside the top 10.
  • 京城前7月10万+豪宅成交148套 创七年新高
  • Total Program Cost: $118,000

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 家居建材市场 8月好戏连台
  • Household substance abuse
  • 国网拟停止垫付光伏补贴 业界担心分布式投资热情降温
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

卖场发展遇瓶颈 客户体验成就居家梦想

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 童建明:加强对未成年人的司法保护 关乎亿万家庭的幸福
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 黑龙江集中整治公职人员勾结“黑中介”违纪问题
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

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Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

目前正在调查最佳影片奖是如何被错误地念成《爱乐之城》而非真正得主《月光男孩》的。
Import growth lifted year-on-year to a pace of 17.7 per cent for the period, up from 17.2 per cent a month earlier and beating an expected rate of 11.3 per cent.
列表里一些电影还在2月份的第67届柏林国际电影节上获得了奖项,例如最佳影片奖得主《身体和灵魂》和最佳导演奖得主《希望的另一面》(芬兰阿基·考里斯马基作品)。
vt. 建议,推荐,劝告
He admitted to having mixed emotions about the letter as he and Vonnie are now divorced.
5.品牌推广:增长了16.4%
Wallace wrote the book after saying "yes" to everything for a year, a commitment which both advanced his career and landed him in a cult meeting. What the movie didn't show, however, is the sheer number of Internet scams Wallace signed up for. Apparently, saying "yes" all the time has its downfalls in real life.
Company: Eventbrite
Effective bosses must be effective decision makers. He or she cannot vacillate over every tiny decision. Being able to make decisions quickly and decisively — and then take responsibility for the outcome (see number 2) — is an important business skill, especially when managing others。
唐同学怀疑水中被混合了有毒物质,便把此事报告给班长和老师。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

五一家具市场热度不减 消费需求高涨!

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
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  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • 双十一后家具消费投诉率暴高 消协为网友支招
  • Company: The Grommet
  • 成交量逐渐攀升 一线城市库存压力得以缓解
  • 他们开始对无保障合同、不稳定的工作时间安排、微薄的工资以及依托优步(Uber)等在线零工经济平台的新形态工作感到忧心忡忡。总部位于巴黎的有影响力的富国俱乐部——经济合作与发展组织(OECD)将于2018年发布《就业战略》,其中可能会更加强调工作的质量和包容性。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 香河昔日投资客:放弃炒房 为父母在香河安家
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 詹姆斯也反映出了一种趋势,从邓肯到马努·吉诺比利再到文斯卡特,也都是这样。调理、人体健康科学和营养正在为运动员们铺平道路,保持他们的身体素质,使得他们可以打更多的比赛。或许,在他36岁的时候,詹姆斯仍会是球队中最好的球员,即便现在看来这很疯狂。
  • 在解释他如何改动小说时,赫洛维兹说:“我想答案是在书中忠实于邦德的全部特征。”

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

“新房不要钱,新家过大年”——陕西旬阳特困户圆了新居梦

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